Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Review of Tapani Ronni’s Session on CRISPR at the ATA 57th Annual Conference

By Brooke A. Cochran

Tapani Ronni presented an extremely intriguing session on Friday, November 4, 2016 at the ATA 57th Annual Conference. entitled “CRISPR Gene Editing: From Tailored Gene Therapy to Species Engineering.” Between his PhD in genetics and his experience as an English to Finnish translator, he was at ease sharing his knowledge with the 30 or so attendees.

Ronni began with a general history of gene editing. It was interesting to learn that it goes back to the 1970s but was not successfully applied until the late ‘80s. As such, gene editing is a relatively new branch of science and far from being a medicine. As promised in the abstract, the main part of the session covered various uses of the CRISPR system: “gene therapy, genome editing for basic research, rapid creation of disease models, and even species engineering.”

As for using it for gene therapy, Ronni explained that this is a way to correct genetic disorders such as Gaucher’s disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These examples helped illustrate the more practical uses of gene editing and how they can positively impact people’s quality of life.

Then, he discussed gene editing as an option for fighting extremely notorious diseases, including cancer and malaria. Ronni said that scientists are learning to edit T cells to fight cancer cells. For fighting malaria, he said, scientists are testing the CRISPR system in species engineering. This example, with various slides to help illustrate it, led to much discussion.

Ronni explained that, theoretically, a certain number of a female malaria mosquito’s genes could be edited to make her less fertile. Then, a large number of these “engineered” mosquitos could be released into the wild. As they mated and reproduced offspring with the same gene, the entire species would eventually die off due to rampant infertility. As a result, malaria would no longer be a concern. Of course, this would mean navigating murky waters with many unknowns, such as how this would impact other species related to the mosquitos. This naturally transitioned the session into the question of gene editing in human embryos, which he pointed out is illegal now, but in 20-30 years may change.

Three big takeaways from this session:
  • An informed understanding of how gene editing works including related terminology.
  • Examples of the many possible uses of the CRISPR system.
  • This is a fast-growing field, which means lots of work for translators in the future, from documents related to studies to questions facing ethical committees and regulatory bodies.

Brooke has been a writer her whole life and a French>English translator for 5 years. Equipped with an MA in French, she specializes in the life sciences and patents, which satisfies her curiosity-hungry mind. She is a life-long learner who enjoys travel and connecting with new people.


Thursday, November 17, 2016

Introducing: New Blog Editor

Dear readers, my name is Patrick Weill, or Pat for short. I am delighted to have been accepted as a new blog editor and I am at your service for anything you may wish to publish here on our division’s blog. If you are not a native English speaker, that is more than ok; it would be a very welcome and valuable contribution if you were to send me your text, and I can help with English editing if you want and/or need that.

I am just barely settling down after a big trip to my home country and region (I am originally from northern California, Sacramento to be exact) for my first ATA conference. It was a wonderful experience for me and I enjoyed meeting many new people and especially being involved in the Science and Technology Division’s activities. After the conference, I traveled up the California coast about 60 miles, to a very small costal town named Bodega Bay. The northern California coast is thought of as too cold by many, but it is precisely this difference between the northern coast and the more well-known beaches of sunny southern California that has kept away the crowds and the problems associated therewith. This beautiful territory is still basically virgin beachfront land for hundreds of miles and the weather is not that bad. More or less it is the same as San Francisco weather. The water IS too cold for swimming, without a wetsuit anyway, and there are some good waves in this area if you are a surfer.


I translate from Spanish to English, mostly medical and scientific right now, and I also offer the reverse pair, through my contacts here in Mexico. I edit that work myself. I have been in Mexico for 11 years now and it looks like I am here to stay for the foreseeable future. As I alluded to above, I am here to help you and our division, so please contact me at pbw@weillandassociates.com if I can be of service to you in any way.















The northerly view from Bodega Head

Review of the Lecture Given at ATA 57 by the S&T Division’s Guest Speaker, Dr. Carl Haber: “Seeing Voices: Using Light to Restore and Preserve Early Recorded Sound” by Patrick Weill

Dear readers, it is my pleasure to present this summary of the two-hour talk, given in November 2016 at the 57th Annual Conference of the American Translators Association in San Francisco, California, entitled “Seeing Voices: Using Light to Restore and Preserve Early Recorded Sound.” It was a fascinating inside look into the type and level of material that a scientific/technical translator or interpreter might have to render into another language. Dr. Haber, our division’s guest speaker for this year’s ATA conference, received a MacArthur Fellowship in 2013 and he is the director of the IRENE project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which, according to the MacArthur Foundation’s website, uses “a non-contact method for extracting high-quality sound from degrading or even broken analog recordings on two- or three-dimensional media.”

Dr. Haber began his talk by explaining the nature of sound and what it means to record it, presenting the technical issues that surround preservation of and access to historical sound recordings. In the second hour, he discussed various historical collections and showed us how technology is used to support historical collections. Throughout his presentation, Dr. Haber played many early experimental recordings, sharing with us some of the important records that he and his team had been able to extract from early media such as paper, foil, and the later, more well-known, wax cylinders used by A.G. Bell and T.A. Edison.

Dr. Haber stated that recording is an “ordered correspondence between magnitude and time,” and defined sound as “a propagating periodic compression and rarefaction of matter,” i.e. a wave. He discussed three major early developers of sound recording: Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville (relevant years 1853-1860), T.A. Edison (1877), and A.G. Bell (1881). Our speaker explained to us that analog sound recording deals with mapping time on a helix (cylinder) or a spiral (disc). Thus, his work focuses on the transfer to digital media of early analog recordings, which are subject to damage, or in his words, turning a sound recording into a picture using one of two non-contact methods, i.e. digital microphotography (2D) and confocal microscopy (3D). Using these methods, the physicist and his team first create an image, a “surface map,” and then use a computer program to process the image and recover the sound. They are able to fix errors by identifying aspects of the picture that correspond to, in the words of Dr. Haber, “extraneous aspects of the image” such as scratches or mold.

Dr. Haber opened the second part of his lecture by indicating that science supports historical collections (by preserving and restoring them) and he gave us various examples of how technology has been applied for this purpose. He charted the history of sound recording from its inception to the present time, citing specific examples of the evolving technology in chronological order and demonstrating how this technology led to the commercial record industry which, as he said, has now been all but wiped out by file sharing. Finally, Dr. Haber discussed field recordings that have been made for the preservation and mapping of indigenous languages, among other uses, on wax cylinders and other media such as metal discs, and related the past progress and future directions of his IRENE Project in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of historically important but fragile sound recordings.


Much more information is available at the IRENE Project’s website, and a lighter but informative article regarding the same, published in the New Yorker, can be found here. We thank Dr. Haber for being kind enough to speak to us at the ATA conference. 


                                          Dr. Carl Haber giving this lecture


Patrick Weill has been living in central Mexico for 11 years and has been translating for 10 years, now with a special focus on science and technology. He is originally from northern California and when not staring at a shiny screen he enjoys exercise, reading, family, and video games.



Monday, October 17, 2016

ATA57 Session: CRISPR Gene Editing with Tapani Ronni

Tapani Ronni, PhD will be presenting “CRISPR gene editing: from tailored gene therapy to species engineering” on Friday, November 4, 2016, at 10:00 am to 11:00 am.

Abstract

This brief review of a new method called CRISPR gene editing is aimed at translators in medical and scientific fields. Gene therapy is an experimental approach that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. There are multiple technical problems to overcome, but the field has a lot of promise. A major stumbling block has been that tailored, accurate editing of DNA has not been possible in mammals, due to the complexity and size of the mammalian genome.

Basic research on bacterial defense mechanisms against viruses (bacteriophages) has led to discovery of the CRISPR-Cas system. CRISPR-Cas is now being used in the laboratory and seems to provide a novel, accurate, and fairly easy method to add, remove, or alter nucleotide bases in the precise target gene of interest.

Possible applications of CRISPR-Cas will be discussed, with their limitations and risks. In addition to basic research, these include precise gene editing to correct genetic defects in human chromosomes (gene therapy). Other possible applications include creating tailored cells for anticancer treatments, and species engineering. Species engineering is a hypothetical method for altering genomes of plant, insect, or mammalian populations in the wild, using a so-called “gene drive” that would bypass Mendelian inheritance laws and give the novel artificial gene construct a significant selection advantage in a few generations. Lastly, CRISPR could be used to alter unborn children or even human sperm and eggs (germ line gene therapy).

This talk will explore philosophical, safety, and ethical issues related to genome editing, species engineering, and germ line gene therapy, concepts hotly debated in the field. Do we have the right to improve future generations and alter the genetic makeup of entire species?


Friday, September 30, 2016

AST-5 at ATA57: Mastering Technical Translation By Karen Tkaczyk

Come one, come all. Well, not everyone! This year I am giving a session that is part of the new Advanced Skills and Training (AST) Day on Wednesday, November 2, prior to the conference itself. This hands-on workshop costs extra and we have limited it to 25 participants, so that everyone can have personal attention.

Here is the abstract for my half-day workshop:

Technical translators with excellent technical writing skills stand out from the crowd, in the quality of their translations and in their income potential. This hands-on editing workshop for technical translators working into English will teach you how to produce clear and concise English scientific and technical texts. For translators who haven’t studied technical writing or who rarely receive detailed feedback on their translations, we will begin with some diagnostic exercises and basic principles of good technical writing. We will then move on to advanced techniques for those who already apply the principles of effective technical writing and editing to their translations.

Attendees who register by October 14 will receive several sample passages that you may edit in preparation for the workshop (optional). The presenter will also provide an extensive reference list, as well as suggestions of useful software. This workshop will include all new examples, different from those used by this speaker in previous ATA seminars and webinars.

Register and see all the other AST day courses at http://www.atanet.org/conf/2016/astday/.

I have prepared sample texts for editing that will be sent to participants in advance, so that they may practice editing and reflect in peace beforehand if they wish, and then compare with the edits that the group comes up with on the day.

I have given other presentations and workshops on this topic. Those have been well-received. In case any participants have attended those previously, I decided to prepare all-new examples for the ATA conference this year.

I hope that as well as providing many tips to help participants produce better technical translations day in, day out, we will have fun!


Karen Tkaczyk, CT

Karen Tkaczyk works as a French>English freelance translator. Her translation work is highly specialized, entirely focused on chemistry and its industrial applications. She holds an MChem in chemistry with French from the University of Manchester, a diploma in French, and a PhD in organic chemistry from the University of Cambridge. She worked in the pharmaceutical industry in Europe and, after relocating to the U.S. in 1999, she worked in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. She established her translation practice in 2005.

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Division Dinner in San Francisco

The Science & Technology Division will hold a networking dinner during the ATA’s 57th Annual Conference in San Francisco. Please join us for dinner at Delancey Street Restaurant to see old friends again and to meet new ones.

WHEN: Friday, November 4 at 8 p.m.
WHERE: Delancey Street Restaurant 600 Embarcadero San Francisco, CA 94107
(415) 957-9800 

MENU: Please visit ATA57 SciTech Dinner Menu for details

RESERVATION AND PAYMENT: Price (includes five-course dinner, one soft drink, tax, and gratuity): $56.00 per person through Paypal or credit card. Payment must be received on or before Monday, October 24. Seating is limited. To register, please visit the ATA57 SciTech Dinner registrationwebsite.

QUESTIONS? Please feel free to contact Nancy or Mery:
Mery Molenaar, payment coordinator

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

ATA57 S&TD Guest Speaker – Dr. Carl Haber, Seeing Voices: Using Light to Restore and Preserve Early Recorded Sound

The Science and Technology Division is delighted to have Guest Speaker Dr. Carl Haber confirmed for ATA57 in San Francisco. Dr. Haber’s two-part presentation, “Seeing Voices: Using Light to Restore and Preserve Early Recorded Sound,” will discuss his use of techniques developed for particle physics research to scan and preserve some of the earliest known sound recordings, including Alexander Graham Bell’s restored voice (1885) and Native American voices from the early 20th century.

Sound was first recorded and reproduced by Thomas Edison in 1877. Until about the 1950s, most recordings were made on mechanical media such as wax, foil, shellac, lacquer, and plastic. Some of these older recordings contain material of great historical interest that may be in obsolete formats and are damaged, decaying, or considered too delicate to play. Among these delicate recordings are 2,700 unique wax cylinder recordings of the voices of California Native Americans, now housed at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Haber and his team use a series of techniques based on non-contact optical metrology and image processing to bring these voices back to life. These techniques, as well as studies of some of the earliest known sound recordings, are the focus of Dr. Haber’s presentation and will be illustrated with sounds and images.

The presentation is divided into two parts, both of which are preliminarily scheduled for the morning of Saturday, November 5, 2016. Part one will focus on the techniques, while part two will focus on the audio recordings themselves. We expect that especially the second part of the presentation series will be of great interest not only to members of ATA’s Science and Technology Division, but also to ATA members interested in linguistics, anthropology, history, and language preservation.

Carl Haber is an experimental physicist. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia University and is a Senior Scientist in the Physics Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at the University of California. His career has focused on the development of instrumentation and methods for detecting and measuring particles created at high energy colliders, including Fermilab in the United States and at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. Since 2002 he and his colleagues have also been involved in aspects of preservation science, applying methods of precision optical metrology and data analysis to early recorded sound restoration. He is a 2013 MacArthur Fellow and a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Dr. Haber’s work has been profiled in The New YorkerNationalGeographic magazineand The Wall Street Journal.