Friday, January 6, 2017

A Review of Raquel Yáker Alazrachi's Glossary of Petroleum, Environment and Natural Gas, English-Spanish, Spanish-English, Second Edition

By Clarisa Moraña

I still remember my first translation as a free-lancer, a triplex pump handbook for a leading oil & gas service company, more than 25 years ago. I knew for sure what a “pump” was, but the term “triplex pump” puzzled me! Besides, I had to deal, for the first time in my life, with specific terminology such as the name of every single pump component. The technical bilingual dictionaries highly recommended by our translation teachers at my university[1] in Caracas failed to provide me with satisfactory terminology. That first paid translation job became a sort of detective work: every single term had to be carefully researched in specialized books and trade magazines. I asked bilingual field engineers to confirm the terms but I used them reluctantly; I was afraid that the chosen terms would be rejected by the client. It turned out that my terminology research was successful, and that the client accepted my proposals.

The lack of a single specialized dictionary for all the oil and gas fields I was translating led me to create my own spreadsheet with all the researched terms (At that time, I wished there was a magic tool able to populate my translations with the approved terminology! Today I’ve converted that spreadsheet into a tbx file and I use it with my favorite CAT tool!). I used to print a hard copy of that spreadsheet as a reference for my translations. I still have this hard copy in my bookcase, and I read it from time to time. Terms such as fluid end, roughneck, shale shaker, off-set were some of the difficult terms in my own oil and gas term base. There weren’t any specialized glossaries containing all of them.

As many passionate translators do, I never hesitate to purchase every bilingual dictionary that happens to appear in front of me, whatever the subject may be. That’s why I have plenty of exploration, drilling, and refining glossaries and dictionaries in my bookcase. And that’s why one day I invested all the money I had in my purse to buy a new bilingual glossary on oil and gas as soon as I saw it at a translation conference in Buenos Aires. I only realized that I’d made one of the best investments of my life for an oil & gas technical dictionary one week later, when the conference ended and I had time to flip through my new book.

The first sign that the Glossary of Petroleum, Environment and Natural Gas, English-Spanish, Spanish-English/Glosario de petróleo, ambiente y gas natural, inglés-español, español-inglés (the first edition) was going to be good was the fact that I was from Venezuela, a leading oil country, with almost 100 years of petroleum industry history, and proud to use a good Spanish terminology in technical fields. While the name of the author -Raquel Yaker- was new to me (I have not lived in Venezuela since 1994), I recognized the name of some of my former colleagues at university in the acknowledgments: they had been among the best students of my class and others had studied at another well-known Venezuelan university! I was sure that I had found a treasure, and this was confirmed as soon as I started to use the glossary. Soon the editorial house published the second edition, which was an updated version, with more terms, and I bought it immediately. In general terms, Yaker’s glossary is a comprehensive dictionary, the most complete I’ve seen until now; it considers the various terms used in different Spanish-speaking countries. It contains triplex pump, fluid end, shale shaker, roughneck and all those terms that had been a headache for me in the past, and with its over 70,000 entries, I’m sure that the glossary will provide me with acceptable terms for my translations. It also includes synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations, useful color illustrations, data tables, and more.

Experience has shown me that there is not a single field to translate when translating for the oil and gas industry. In fact, it can be subdivided in upstream, midstream, and downstream, but it will always contain health, safety, and environmental terminology. Also, the Spanish terminology will vary according to the target Spanish speaking country the translation is for: the English word shale, for instance, might be translated as ripio in Venezuela, esquisto pizarroso in Colombia or pizarra in Mexico. This Glossary of Petroleum… will include many of the different terms used in Latin American countries. While I do not always agree with the provided terminology (for instance, for the English term shale-shaker the glossary proposes colador vibratorio, which in fact is also proposed in other technical dictionaries, but it is never used in the oil and gas jargon, and fails to propose temblorina, a word widely used in Colombia).

In brief, any translator or interpreter for the oil and gas industry for the Spanish-English, or English-Spanish pair should invest in this oeuvre. It is the specialized dictionary I always dreamed of, since that very first day I started to work as a translator!

Additional information about the Glossary of Petroleum, Environment and Natural Gas, English-Spanish, Spanish-English/Glosario de petróleo, ambiente y gas natural, inglés-español, español-inglésRaquel Yáker Alazrachi, second edition, 2012. ISBN 978-6713-04-08 can be found here.

About the Author:
Clarisa Moraña is a Spanish-speaking technical translator and trainer. She studied translation at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. She worked as an in-house contributor to the international news agency United Press International, and as a freelance translator for oil service companies in the Schlumberger group, namely Dowell, Schlumberger, Anadrill, and Geco-Prakla in the late 1980s in Caracas. In 1994, she moved to Buenos Aires, Argentina, where she translated for the leading local newspaper Clarin. She then worked as a freelancer for international oil and gas companies, translation agencies, and provided online and in-house training for translators (primarily in computer-assisted translation tools)

[1] Escuela de Idiomas Modernos, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas.

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Beware of fraudulent websites that could ruin your reputation or worse: how I achieved a happy ending


A few months ago, I discovered, thanks to Google Alerts, that a fraudulent website was using my business name and excerpts of my copyrighted website content without my permission to advertise their dishonest services.

My business name, which was used on the aforementioned site without my permission, has been registered in the State of California, United States of America, since 2010. The illegal use of copyrighted excerpts from my website violates the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

On the same page, a highly unethical academic paper writing service was advertised; that is, a website was advertised, where students could pay for somebody else to write their term papers or other homework for them. This practice is not only unethical but also constitutes fraud. I had absolutely nothing to do with these academic paper writing services or that website.

The site has been taken offline a few weeks ago and has been offline ever since.

Fraudulent site offline

Here is the timeline of the actions I took, which led to this positive outcome and which may help you if you are ever in a similar situation.

Step 0: Set up Google Alerts

If I hadn’t set up several Google Alerts to inform me whenever my name or my business name appears on a new site online, I would never have known about the impostors. I wrote a blog post about how to do that here.

Step 1: Post a disclaimer on my website

I posted an alert immediately after the discovery of the fraudulent website, in which I disassociated myself and my business from the website and all its activities. If I had had the slightest suspicion that the impostors could contact my existing clients or solicit new clients under my name outside of that website, I would have also proactively contacted my existing clients and posted another alert/disclaimer on all my public and semi-private social media and professional accounts.

Step 2: Find out who is behind the website

Unfortunately, this step proved to be quite difficult, because the real host of the website was hidden under several layers of anonymized entities. I began by looking at the internet registry information, which you can find via any Whois domain service, for example The domain and the network whois record indicated that this particular website was registered in Panama. Unfortunately, contacting the registrar (see step 3) proved not to be very useful, because they claimed they were only responsible for registering the domain name, not for the content. I was referred to another entity in China, which also claimed not to be responsible for the content.

However, the domain name registrar was helpful enough to suggest to run a ping traceroute, which gave me the domain name and the IP address of the entity that actually hosted the content on their servers. One such service is The last entry of the route is the IP address and domain name of the server that I was looking for. With this information, I went back into the Whois domain lookup and got the record of the actual host. The host is supposedly based in Canada, but the IP address of the server is actually located in Utah, USA, as an IP location service such as revealed. Now I had enough legal ammunition to take action.

Step 3: Cease and desist letter

After peeling back all the layers of the onion, I sent a very official sounding cease and desist email to the aforementioned hosting service. Actually, I had sent cease and desist letters to all the involved parties/layers, but although I received nearly immediate responses, they just referred me to the next layer. But when I sent a cease and desist letter to the hosting service, the site was taken down the very next day, although I never received a response from the hosting service! Regarding the content of the cease and desist letter, I looked up a template online for the proper legal phrases. I mentioned that my business name, which was used fraudulently, is registered in the State of California (since 2010), and that the content of my website, which was used without my permission, is copyrighted. More on that below. I was prepared to take further action, but luckily, this was not necessary.

Step 4 (not taken): Invoke US copyright law

According to US Copyright law, all work is under copyright the moment it is created and fixed in a tangible form, without actually having to register for a copyright. Aside from the standard “All rights reserved” disclaimer on my website, I also use a WordPress plugin to take snapshots of the content that I deem worthy of copyright. This serves as “fixing it in a tangible form,” as required under the US copyright law quoted above. There are many such plugins available. If the site had not been taken down, I was prepared to send a takedown notice according to the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act to the service provider that was hosting the offending site. The steps to send a DCMA takedown notice are described here. Luckily, this was not necessary.

All is well that ends well. I want to thank my colleagues who helped me peel back the layers of this fraudulent onion. I hope that I can help other people in a similar situation by sharing this experience. I also hope that potential criminals will be sufficiently deterred from trying something similar in the future.

About the author:

Carola F. Berger, PhD is an ATA-certified English-into-German patent translator with a PhD in physics and a Master’s degree in engineering physics. She has written a series of blog posts about scams in the translation industry as well as an article in The ATA Chronicle in 2014, which is still very relevant today. Evidently, the scammers in the story above messed with the wrong translator!

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Review of Tapani Ronni’s Session on CRISPR at the ATA 57th Annual Conference

By Brooke A. Cochran

Tapani Ronni presented an extremely intriguing session on Friday, November 4, 2016 at the ATA 57th Annual Conference. entitled “CRISPR Gene Editing: From Tailored Gene Therapy to Species Engineering.” Between his PhD in genetics and his experience as an English to Finnish translator, he was at ease sharing his knowledge with the 30 or so attendees.

Ronni began with a general history of gene editing. It was interesting to learn that it goes back to the 1970s but was not successfully applied until the late ‘80s. As such, gene editing is a relatively new branch of science and far from being a medicine. As promised in the abstract, the main part of the session covered various uses of the CRISPR system: “gene therapy, genome editing for basic research, rapid creation of disease models, and even species engineering.”

As for using it for gene therapy, Ronni explained that this is a way to correct genetic disorders such as Gaucher’s disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These examples helped illustrate the more practical uses of gene editing and how they can positively impact people’s quality of life.

Then, he discussed gene editing as an option for fighting extremely notorious diseases, including cancer and malaria. Ronni said that scientists are learning to edit T cells to fight cancer cells. For fighting malaria, he said, scientists are testing the CRISPR system in species engineering. This example, with various slides to help illustrate it, led to much discussion.

Ronni explained that, theoretically, a certain number of a female malaria mosquito’s genes could be edited to make her less fertile. Then, a large number of these “engineered” mosquitos could be released into the wild. As they mated and reproduced offspring with the same gene, the entire species would eventually die off due to rampant infertility. As a result, malaria would no longer be a concern. Of course, this would mean navigating murky waters with many unknowns, such as how this would impact other species related to the mosquitos. This naturally transitioned the session into the question of gene editing in human embryos, which he pointed out is illegal now, but in 20-30 years may change.

Three big takeaways from this session:
  • An informed understanding of how gene editing works including related terminology.
  • Examples of the many possible uses of the CRISPR system.
  • This is a fast-growing field, which means lots of work for translators in the future, from documents related to studies to questions facing ethical committees and regulatory bodies.

Brooke has been a writer her whole life and a French>English translator for 5 years. Equipped with an MA in French, she specializes in the life sciences and patents, which satisfies her curiosity-hungry mind. She is a life-long learner who enjoys travel and connecting with new people.

Thursday, November 17, 2016

Introducing: New Blog Editor

Dear readers, my name is Patrick Weill, or Pat for short. I am delighted to have been accepted as a new blog editor and I am at your service for anything you may wish to publish here on our division’s blog. If you are not a native English speaker, that is more than ok; it would be a very welcome and valuable contribution if you were to send me your text, and I can help with English editing if you want and/or need that.

I am just barely settling down after a big trip to my home country and region (I am originally from northern California, Sacramento to be exact) for my first ATA conference. It was a wonderful experience for me and I enjoyed meeting many new people and especially being involved in the Science and Technology Division’s activities. After the conference, I traveled up the California coast about 60 miles, to a very small costal town named Bodega Bay. The northern California coast is thought of as too cold by many, but it is precisely this difference between the northern coast and the more well-known beaches of sunny southern California that has kept away the crowds and the problems associated therewith. This beautiful territory is still basically virgin beachfront land for hundreds of miles and the weather is not that bad. More or less it is the same as San Francisco weather. The water IS too cold for swimming, without a wetsuit anyway, and there are some good waves in this area if you are a surfer.

I translate from Spanish to English, mostly medical and scientific right now, and I also offer the reverse pair, through my contacts here in Mexico. I edit that work myself. I have been in Mexico for 11 years now and it looks like I am here to stay for the foreseeable future. As I alluded to above, I am here to help you and our division, so please contact me at if I can be of service to you in any way.

The northerly view from Bodega Head

Review of the Lecture Given at ATA 57 by the S&T Division’s Guest Speaker, Dr. Carl Haber: “Seeing Voices: Using Light to Restore and Preserve Early Recorded Sound” by Patrick Weill

Dear readers, it is my pleasure to present this summary of the two-hour talk, given in November 2016 at the 57th Annual Conference of the American Translators Association in San Francisco, California, entitled “Seeing Voices: Using Light to Restore and Preserve Early Recorded Sound.” It was a fascinating inside look into the type and level of material that a scientific/technical translator or interpreter might have to render into another language. Dr. Haber, our division’s guest speaker for this year’s ATA conference, received a MacArthur Fellowship in 2013 and he is the director of the IRENE project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which, according to the MacArthur Foundation’s website, uses “a non-contact method for extracting high-quality sound from degrading or even broken analog recordings on two- or three-dimensional media.”

Dr. Haber began his talk by explaining the nature of sound and what it means to record it, presenting the technical issues that surround preservation of and access to historical sound recordings. In the second hour, he discussed various historical collections and showed us how technology is used to support historical collections. Throughout his presentation, Dr. Haber played many early experimental recordings, sharing with us some of the important records that he and his team had been able to extract from early media such as paper, foil, and the later, more well-known, wax cylinders used by A.G. Bell and T.A. Edison.

Dr. Haber stated that recording is an “ordered correspondence between magnitude and time,” and defined sound as “a propagating periodic compression and rarefaction of matter,” i.e. a wave. He discussed three major early developers of sound recording: Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville (relevant years 1853-1860), T.A. Edison (1877), and A.G. Bell (1881). Our speaker explained to us that analog sound recording deals with mapping time on a helix (cylinder) or a spiral (disc). Thus, his work focuses on the transfer to digital media of early analog recordings, which are subject to damage, or in his words, turning a sound recording into a picture using one of two non-contact methods, i.e. digital microphotography (2D) and confocal microscopy (3D). Using these methods, the physicist and his team first create an image, a “surface map,” and then use a computer program to process the image and recover the sound. They are able to fix errors by identifying aspects of the picture that correspond to, in the words of Dr. Haber, “extraneous aspects of the image” such as scratches or mold.

Dr. Haber opened the second part of his lecture by indicating that science supports historical collections (by preserving and restoring them) and he gave us various examples of how technology has been applied for this purpose. He charted the history of sound recording from its inception to the present time, citing specific examples of the evolving technology in chronological order and demonstrating how this technology led to the commercial record industry which, as he said, has now been all but wiped out by file sharing. Finally, Dr. Haber discussed field recordings that have been made for the preservation and mapping of indigenous languages, among other uses, on wax cylinders and other media such as metal discs, and related the past progress and future directions of his IRENE Project in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of historically important but fragile sound recordings.

Much more information is available at the IRENE Project’s website, and a lighter but informative article regarding the same, published in the New Yorker, can be found here. We thank Dr. Haber for being kind enough to speak to us at the ATA conference. 

                                          Dr. Carl Haber giving this lecture

Patrick Weill has been living in central Mexico for 11 years and has been translating for 10 years, now with a special focus on science and technology. He is originally from northern California and when not staring at a shiny screen he enjoys exercise, reading, family, and video games.

Monday, October 17, 2016

ATA57 Session: CRISPR Gene Editing with Tapani Ronni

Tapani Ronni, PhD will be presenting “CRISPR gene editing: from tailored gene therapy to species engineering” on Friday, November 4, 2016, at 10:00 am to 11:00 am.


This brief review of a new method called CRISPR gene editing is aimed at translators in medical and scientific fields. Gene therapy is an experimental approach that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. There are multiple technical problems to overcome, but the field has a lot of promise. A major stumbling block has been that tailored, accurate editing of DNA has not been possible in mammals, due to the complexity and size of the mammalian genome.

Basic research on bacterial defense mechanisms against viruses (bacteriophages) has led to discovery of the CRISPR-Cas system. CRISPR-Cas is now being used in the laboratory and seems to provide a novel, accurate, and fairly easy method to add, remove, or alter nucleotide bases in the precise target gene of interest.

Possible applications of CRISPR-Cas will be discussed, with their limitations and risks. In addition to basic research, these include precise gene editing to correct genetic defects in human chromosomes (gene therapy). Other possible applications include creating tailored cells for anticancer treatments, and species engineering. Species engineering is a hypothetical method for altering genomes of plant, insect, or mammalian populations in the wild, using a so-called “gene drive” that would bypass Mendelian inheritance laws and give the novel artificial gene construct a significant selection advantage in a few generations. Lastly, CRISPR could be used to alter unborn children or even human sperm and eggs (germ line gene therapy).

This talk will explore philosophical, safety, and ethical issues related to genome editing, species engineering, and germ line gene therapy, concepts hotly debated in the field. Do we have the right to improve future generations and alter the genetic makeup of entire species?

Friday, September 30, 2016

AST-5 at ATA57: Mastering Technical Translation By Karen Tkaczyk

Come one, come all. Well, not everyone! This year I am giving a session that is part of the new Advanced Skills and Training (AST) Day on Wednesday, November 2, prior to the conference itself. This hands-on workshop costs extra and we have limited it to 25 participants, so that everyone can have personal attention.

Here is the abstract for my half-day workshop:

Technical translators with excellent technical writing skills stand out from the crowd, in the quality of their translations and in their income potential. This hands-on editing workshop for technical translators working into English will teach you how to produce clear and concise English scientific and technical texts. For translators who haven’t studied technical writing or who rarely receive detailed feedback on their translations, we will begin with some diagnostic exercises and basic principles of good technical writing. We will then move on to advanced techniques for those who already apply the principles of effective technical writing and editing to their translations.

Attendees who register by October 14 will receive several sample passages that you may edit in preparation for the workshop (optional). The presenter will also provide an extensive reference list, as well as suggestions of useful software. This workshop will include all new examples, different from those used by this speaker in previous ATA seminars and webinars.

Register and see all the other AST day courses at

I have prepared sample texts for editing that will be sent to participants in advance, so that they may practice editing and reflect in peace beforehand if they wish, and then compare with the edits that the group comes up with on the day.

I have given other presentations and workshops on this topic. Those have been well-received. In case any participants have attended those previously, I decided to prepare all-new examples for the ATA conference this year.

I hope that as well as providing many tips to help participants produce better technical translations day in, day out, we will have fun!

Karen Tkaczyk, CT

Karen Tkaczyk works as a French>English freelance translator. Her translation work is highly specialized, entirely focused on chemistry and its industrial applications. She holds an MChem in chemistry with French from the University of Manchester, a diploma in French, and a PhD in organic chemistry from the University of Cambridge. She worked in the pharmaceutical industry in Europe and, after relocating to the U.S. in 1999, she worked in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. She established her translation practice in 2005.